L-carnitine

L-carnitine is an amino acid derivative that is more than needed in fatty acid metabolism.

This substance is found mainly in the heart muscle, liver and other tissues. Its presence in the body is necessarily associated with the content of vitamin C, the lack of which reduces the synthesis of carnitine. As a result, increased blood triglycerides, physical weakness and other symptoms characteristic of vitamin C deficiency occur.

HISTORY

In 1906, carnitine, identified as a nitrogen compound, was an integral part of muscle. Later, Franklin and co-workers found that carnitine is a growth factor of the type of larvae found in flour. In 1950, Fritz and Bremer demonstrated the role of carnitine in the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mammals.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Carnitine occurs in the form of an odorless white crystalline powder. It is easily soluble in water and hot alcohol, almost insoluble in acetone and ether. It must be stored protected from light. Chemically, carnitine is p-hydroxy-7-tri-methylammonium butyrate.

Only L-carnitine is synthesized in tissues and is biologically active!


NATURAL RESOURCES

The primary sources of firewood are meat and dairy products. The precursors of kamitin are amino acids.

FATE IN THE BODY

Food-ingested L-carnitine is actually completely absorbed from the gut, mostly by a saturated transport mechanism. Carnitine is transported by active transport to most cells; D-carnitine is also tolerated and may inhibit L-carnitine intake. Carnitine is mostly excreted in the urine as acetyl-carnitine. More than 90 percent of non-esterified kamitin is reabsorbed in the renal tubules. Carnitine is the subject of much research, especially its metabolism.4'10

PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

Carnitine is generally important for the oxidation of fatty acids. Facilitates the aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, increases the rate of oxidative phosphorylation and supports the excretion of certain organic acids.

RECOMMENDED DAILY QUANTITIES AND THERAPEUTIC USE

In 1986, the FDA approved the use of carnitine in the treatment of primary carcinoma deficiency. It can also be used for secondary deficiency of kamitina. L-carnitine and D-, L-isomers can be used in therapy, but it is believed that only L-carnitine is effective and that D, L-isomers can lead to deficiency of kamitin.

Carnitine hydrochloride and bicarnitine chloride are used for therapeutic purposes and are given orally and parenterally. In case of primary deficiency of kamitin, oral administration of 200 mg / kg body weight per day, divided into several doses, is recommended. Doses higher than 400 mg / kg / day are rarely required. Intravenous doses (100 mg / kg body weight) are given slowly. Intravenous doses of 20 mg / kg after each dialysis are recommended for patients with secondary kamitin deficiency or hemodialysis patients.

Children are given carnitine orally at doses of 100 mg / kg body weight per day.

The use of fireplace is justified in:

  • primary deficiency of kamitina,
  • kidney disease,
  • hemodialysis,
  • cardiomyopathies and ischemic heart disease.
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